记录几段常用js代码的实现

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前言

记录几段常用的js代码实现,掌握了实现原理,就对这些用法会有更加深入的理解。

一、深拷贝

深拷贝,深比较,之前有文章写过,请看:https://www.haorooms.com/post/js_copy_sq

今天的深copy考虑了Symbol属性,代码如下:

const cloneDeep1 = (target, hash = new WeakMap()) => {
  // 对于传入参数处理
  if (typeof target !== 'object' || target === null) {
    return target;
  }
  // 哈希表中存在直接返回
  if (hash.has(target)) return hash.get(target);

  const cloneTarget = Array.isArray(target) ? [] : {};
  hash.set(target, cloneTarget);

  // 针对Symbol属性
  const symKeys = Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(target);
  if (symKeys.length) {
    symKeys.forEach(symKey => {
      if (typeof target[symKey] === 'object' && target[symKey] !== null) {
        cloneTarget[symKey] = cloneDeep1(target[symKey]);
      } else {
        cloneTarget[symKey] = target[symKey];
      }
    })
  }

  for (const i in target) {
    if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(target, i)) {
      cloneTarget[i] =
        typeof target[i] === 'object' && target[i] !== null
        ? cloneDeep1(target[i], hash)
        : target[i];
    }
  }
  return cloneTarget;
}

二、Promise实现

// 模拟实现Promise
// Promise利用三大手段解决回调地狱:
// 1. 回调函数延迟绑定
// 2. 返回值穿透
// 3. 错误冒泡

// 定义三种状态
const PENDING = 'PENDING';      // 进行中
const FULFILLED = 'FULFILLED';  // 已成功
const REJECTED = 'REJECTED';    // 已失败

class Promise {
  constructor(exector) {
    // 初始化状态
    this.status = PENDING;
    // 将成功、失败结果放在this上,便于then、catch访问
    this.value = undefined;
    this.reason = undefined;
    // 成功态回调函数队列
    this.onFulfilledCallbacks = [];
    // 失败态回调函数队列
    this.onRejectedCallbacks = [];

    const resolve = value => {
      // 只有进行中状态才能更改状态
      if (this.status === PENDING) {
        this.status = FULFILLED;
        this.value = value;
        // 成功态函数依次执行
        this.onFulfilledCallbacks.forEach(fn => fn(this.value));
      }
    }
    const reject = reason => {
      // 只有进行中状态才能更改状态
      if (this.status === PENDING) {
        this.status = REJECTED;
        this.reason = reason;
        // 失败态函数依次执行
        this.onRejectedCallbacks.forEach(fn => fn(this.reason))
      }
    }
    try {
      // 立即执行executor
      // 把内部的resolve和reject传入executor,用户可调用resolve和reject
      exector(resolve, reject);
    } catch(e) {
      // executor执行出错,将错误内容reject抛出去
      reject(e);
    }
  }
  then(onFulfilled, onRejected) {
    onFulfilled = typeof onFulfilled === 'function' ? onFulfilled : value => value;
    onRejected = typeof onRejected === 'function'? onRejected :
      reason => { throw new Error(reason instanceof Error ? reason.message : reason) }
    // 保存this
    const self = this;
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      if (self.status === PENDING) {
        self.onFulfilledCallbacks.push(() => {
          // try捕获错误
          try {
            // 模拟微任务
            setTimeout(() => {
              const result = onFulfilled(self.value);
              // 分两种情况:
              // 1. 回调函数返回值是Promise,执行then操作
              // 2. 如果不是Promise,调用新Promise的resolve函数
              result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : resolve(result);
            })
          } catch(e) {
            reject(e);
          }
        });
        self.onRejectedCallbacks.push(() => {
          // 以下同理
          try {
            setTimeout(() => {
              const result = onRejected(self.reason);
              // 不同点:此时是reject
              result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : reject(result);
            })
          } catch(e) {
            reject(e);
          }
        })
      } else if (self.status === FULFILLED) {
        try {
          setTimeout(() => {
            const result = onFulfilled(self.value);
            result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : resolve(result);
          });
        } catch(e) {
          reject(e);
        }
      } else if (self.status === REJECTED) {
        try {
          setTimeout(() => {
            const result = onRejected(self.reason);
            result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : resolve(result);
          })
        } catch(e) {
          reject(e);
        }
      }
    });
  }
  catch(onRejected) {
    return this.then(null, onRejected);
  }
  static resolve(value) {
    if (value instanceof Promise) {
      // 如果是Promise实例,直接返回
      return value;
    } else {
      // 如果不是Promise实例,返回一个新的Promise对象,状态为FULFILLED
      return new Promise((resolve, reject) => resolve(value));
    }
  }
  static reject(reason) {
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      reject(reason);
    })
  }
  static all(promiseArr) {
    const len = promiseArr.length;
    const values = new Array(len);
    // 记录已经成功执行的promise个数
    let count = 0;
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      for (let i = 0; i < len; i++) {
        // Promise.resolve()处理,确保每一个都是promise实例
        Promise.resolve(promiseArr[i]).then(
          val => {
            values[i] = val;
            count++;
            // 如果全部执行完,返回promise的状态就可以改变了
            if (count === len) resolve(values);
          },
          err => reject(err),
        );
      }
    })
  }
  static race(promiseArr) {
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      promiseArr.forEach(p => {
        Promise.resolve(p).then(
          val => resolve(val),
          err => reject(err),
        )
      })
    })
  }
}

三、Promise并行限制

class Scheduler {
  constructor() {
    this.queue = [];
    this.maxCount = 2;
    this.runCounts = 0;
  }
  add(promiseCreator) {
    this.queue.push(promiseCreator);
  }
  taskStart() {
    for (let i = 0; i < this.maxCount; i++) {
      this.request();
    }
  }
  request() {
    if (!this.queue || !this.queue.length || this.runCounts >= this.maxCount) {
      return;
    }
    this.runCounts++;

    this.queue.shift()().then(() => {
      this.runCounts--;
      this.request();
    });
  }
}

const timeout = time => new Promise(resolve => {
  setTimeout(resolve, time);
})

const scheduler = new Scheduler();

const addTask = (time,order) => {
  scheduler.add(() => timeout(time).then(()=>console.log(order)))
}


addTask(1000, '1');
addTask(500, '2');
addTask(300, '3');
addTask(400, '4');
scheduler.taskStart()
// 2
// 3
// 1
// 4

四、JSONP的实现

const jsonp = ({ url, params, callbackName }) => {
  const generateUrl = () => {
    let dataSrc = '';
    for (let key in params) {
      if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(params, key)) {
        dataSrc += `${key}=${params[key]}&`;
      }
    }
    dataSrc += `callback=${callbackName}`;
    return `${url}?${dataSrc}`;
  }
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const scriptEle = document.createElement('script');
    scriptEle.src = generateUrl();
    document.body.appendChild(scriptEle);
    window[callbackName] = data => {
      resolve(data);
      document.removeChild(scriptEle);
    }
  })
}

五、event模块实现

实现node中回调函数的机制,node中回调函数其实是内部使用了观察者模式。

function EventEmitter() {
  this.events = new Map();
}

// 需要实现的一些方法:
// addListener、removeListener、once、removeAllListeners、emit

// 模拟实现addlistener方法
const wrapCallback = (fn, once = false) => ({ callback: fn, once });
EventEmitter.prototype.addListener = function(type, fn, once = false) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) {
    // 没有type绑定事件
    this.events.set(type, wrapCallback(fn, once));
  } else if (hanlder && typeof hanlder.callback === 'function') {
    // 目前type事件只有一个回调
    this.events.set(type, [hanlder, wrapCallback(fn, once)]);
  } else {
    // 目前type事件数>=2
    hanlder.push(wrapCallback(fn, once));
  }
}
// 模拟实现removeListener
EventEmitter.prototype.removeListener = function(type, listener) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  if (!Array.isArray(this.events)) {
    if (hanlder.callback === listener.callback) this.events.delete(type);
    else return;
  }
  for (let i = 0; i < hanlder.length; i++) {
    const item = hanlder[i];
    if (item.callback === listener.callback) {
      hanlder.splice(i, 1);
      i--;
      if (hanlder.length === 1) {
        this.events.set(type, hanlder[0]);
      }
    }
  }
}
// 模拟实现once方法
EventEmitter.prototype.once = function(type, listener) {
  this.addListener(type, listener, true);
}
// 模拟实现emit方法
EventEmitter.prototype.emit = function(type, ...args) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  if (Array.isArray(hanlder)) {
    hanlder.forEach(item => {
      item.callback.apply(this, args);
      if (item.once) {
        this.removeListener(type, item);
      }
    })
  } else {
    hanlder.callback.apply(this, args);
    if (hanlder.once) {
      this.events.delete(type);
    }
  }
  return true;
}
EventEmitter.prototype.removeAllListeners = function(type) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  this.events.delete(type);
}

六、一次性渲染几万条数据数据,页面不算很卡的方法

几万条数据,假如不是滚动加载,一次性渲染到页面中,单单是节点,都会很慢。下面方法可以渲染出来。但是节点很多,也会比较慢,但是是一次性渲染几万条数据比较好的方式了。

setTimeout(() => {
  // 插入十万条数据
  const total = 100000;
  // 一次插入的数据
  const once = 20;
  // 插入数据需要的次数
  const loopCount = Math.ceil(total / once);
  let countOfRender = 0;
  const ul = document.querySelector('ul');
  // 添加数据的方法
  function add() {
    const fragment = document.createDocumentFragment();
    for(let i = 0; i < once; i++) {
      const li = document.createElement('li');
      li.innerText = Math.floor(Math.random() * total);
      fragment.appendChild(li);
    }
    ul.appendChild(fragment);
    countOfRender += 1;
    loop();
  }
  function loop() {
    if(countOfRender < loopCount) {
      window.requestAnimationFrame(add);
    }
  }
  loop();
}, 0)

这个方法使用createDocumentFragment和requestAnimationFrame,将操作切分为一小段一小段执行。

七、将VirtualDom转化为真实DOM结构

// vnode结构:
// {
//   tag,
//   attrs,
//   children,
// }

//Virtual DOM => DOM
function render(vnode, container) {
  container.appendChild(_render(vnode));
}
function _render(vnode) {
  // 如果是数字类型转化为字符串
  if (typeof vnode === 'number') {
    vnode = String(vnode);
  }
  // 字符串类型直接就是文本节点
  if (typeof vnode === 'string') {
    return document.createTextNode(vnode);
  }
  // 普通DOM
  const dom = document.createElement(vnode.tag);
  if (vnode.attrs) {
    // 遍历属性
    Object.keys(vnode.attrs).forEach(key => {
      const value = vnode.attrs[key];
      dom.setAttribute(key, value);
    })
  }
  // 子数组进行递归操作
  vnode.children.forEach(child => render(child, dom));
  return dom;
}

八、字符串解析问题

var a = {
    b: 123,
    c: '456',
    e: '789',
}
var str=`a{a.b}aa{a.c}aa {a.d}aaaa`;
// => 'a123aa456aa {a.d}aaaa'

实现函数使得将str字符串中的{}内的变量替换,如果属性不存在保持原样(比如{a.d}) 类似于模版字符串,但有一点出入,实际上原理大差不差

const fn1 = (str, obj) => {
    let res = '';
    // 标志位,标志前面是否有{
    let flag = false;
    let start;
    for (let i = 0; i < str.length; i++) {
        if (str[i] === '{') {
            flag = true;
            start = i + 1;
            continue;
        }
        if (!flag) res += str[i];
        else {
            if (str[i] === '}') {
                flag = false;
                res += match(str.slice(start, i), obj);
            }
        }
    }
    return res;
}
// 对象匹配操作
const match = (str, obj) => {
    const keys = str.split('.').slice(1);
    let index = 0;
    let o = obj;
    while (index < keys.length) {
        const key = keys[index];
        if (!o[key]) {
            return `{${str}}`;
        } else {
            o = o[key];
        }
        index++;
    }
    return o;
}

九、数组扁平化

数组扁平化是指将一个多维数组变为一个一维数组

const arr = [1, [2, [3, [4, 5]]], 6];
// => [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

方法一:使用flat()

const res1 = arr.flat(Infinity);

方法二:正则

const res3 = JSON.parse('[' + JSON.stringify(arr).replace(/\[|\]/g, '') + ']');

Tags: jscommon

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